Knowledge Mapping

This module focuses on the basics of Knowledge Mapping, its importance, principles, and methodologies.

Key Questions

  • What is K-map?
  • What does the K-map show, and what do we map?
  • Why is K-mapping so important?
  • What are some of the key principles, methods, and questions for K-mapping?
  • How do we create K-map?


Each of the past centuries has been dominated by single technology. The eighth century was the time of the great mechanical systems involving the Industrial Revolution. The nineteenth century was the age of steam engine. After these, the key technology has been information gathering, processing and distribution. Among other developments, the installation of world wide telephone networks, the invention of radio and television, the birth and unpresented growth of the computer industry and the launching of communication satellites are significant. Now people started to think that only information is not enough, what matters is Knowledge. So there has been seen a shift from Information to Knowledge.

A bit of information without context and interpretation is data such as numbers, symbols.

Information is a set of data with context and interpretation. Information is the basis for knowledge.

Knowledge is a set of data and information, which which is added expert opinion and experience, to result in a valuable asset which can be used or applied to aid decision making. Knowledge may be explicit and / or tacit, individual and / or collective.

The term-Knowledge Mapping- seems to be relatively new, but it is not. We have been practicing this in our everyday life, just what we are not doing is – we are not documenting it, and we are not doing it in a systematic way. Knowledge Mapping is all about keeping a record of information and knowledge you need such as where you can get it from, who holds it, who expertise is it, and so on. Say, you need to find something at your home or in your room, you can find it in no time because you have almost all the information / knowledge about -what is where- and -who knows what- at your home. It is a sort of map set in your mind about your home. But, to set such a map about your organization and organizational knowledge in your mind is almost impossible. This is where K-map becomes handy and shows details of every bit of knowledge that exists within the organization including location, quality, and accessibility; And knowledge required to run the organization smoothly – since making you able to find out your required knowledge easily and efficiently.

Below are some of the definitions:

It's an ongoing quest within an organization (including its supply and customer chain) to help discover the location, ownership, value and use of knowledge artifacts, to learn the roles and expertise of people, to identify constants to the flow of knowledge, and to Highlight opportunities to leverage existing knowledge.

Knowledge mapping is an important practice consulting of survey, audit, and synthesis. It aims to track the acquisition and loss of information and knowledge. It explores personal and group competencies and proficiencies. It illustrates or "maps" how knowledge flows through an organization. Knowledge mapping helps an organization to appreciate how the loss of staff influences intellectual capital, to assist with the selection of teams, and to match technology to knowledge needs and processes.

– Denham Gray

Knowledge mapping is about making knowledge that is available within an organization transparent, and is about providing the insights into its quality.

– Willem-Olaf Huijsen, Samuel J. Driessen, Jan WM Jacobs

Knowledge mapping is a process by which organizations can identify and categorize knowledge assets within their organization – people, processes, content, and technology. It allows an organization to fully leverage the existing expert residency in the organization, as well as identify barriers and constraints to fulfilling strategic goals and objectives. It is constructing a roadmap to locate the information needed to make the best use of resourses, independent of source or form.

-W. Vestal, APQC, 2002

(American Productivity & Quality Center)

Knowledge Map describes what knowledge is used in a process, and how it flows around the process. It is the basis for determining knowledge commonality, or areas where similar knowledge is used across multiple process. Fundamentally, a process knowledge map cntains information about the organization? S knowledge. It describes who has what knowledge (tacit), where the knowledge resides (infrastructure), and how the knowledge is transferred or disseminated (social).

-IBM Global Services

How are the Knowledge Maps created?

Knowledge maps are created by transferring tacit and explicit knowledge into graphical formats that are easy to understand and interpret by the end users, who may be managers, experts, system developers, or anyone.

Basic steps in creating K-maps:

Basic steps – creating K-maps for specific task

  • The outcomes of the entire process, and their contributions to the key organizational activities
  • Logical sequences of all the activities needed to achieve the goal
  • Knowledge required for each activity {gives the knowledge gap}
  • Human resource required to undertake each activity {shows if recruitment is needed}

What do we map?

The followings are the objects we map:

  • Explicit knowledge
    • Subject
    • Purpose
    • Location
    • Format
    • Ownership
    • Users
    • Access right
  • Tacit knowledge
    • Expertise
    • Skill
    • Experience
    • Location
    • Accessibility
    • Contact address
    • Relationships / networks
  • Tacit organic process knowledge
    • The people with the internal processing knowledge
  • Explicit organizational process knowledge
    • Codified organizational process knowledge

What do the knowledge maps show?

Knowledge map shows the sources, flows, constitutions, and sinks of knowledge within an organization. It is a navigational aid to both explicit information and tacit knowledge, showing the importance and the relationships between knowledge stores and the dynamics. The following list will be more illustrative in this regard:

  • Available knowledge resources
  • Knowledge clusters and communities
  • Who uses what knowledge resources
  • The paths of knowledge exchange
  • The knowledge lifecycle
  • What we know we don? T know (knowledge gap)

Activity: 1

>> Can you create your personal knowledge map which shows the types and location of knowledge resources you use, the channels you use to access knowledge?

Where does knowledge tear?

Knowledge can be found in

  • Correspondents, internal documents
  • Library
  • Archives (past project documents, proposals)
  • Meetings
  • Best practices
  • Experience
  • Corporate memory

Activity: 2

>> What are the other places where you can find knowledge?

What are the other things to be mapped?

Benefits of K-mapping

In many organizations there is a lack of transparency of organization wide knowledge. Valuable knowledge is often not used because people do not know it exists, even if they know the knowledge exists, they may not know where. These issues lead to the knowledge mapping. Followings are some of the key reasons for doing the knowledge mapping:

  • To find key sources of knowledge creation
  • To encourage reuse and prevent reinvention
  • To find critical information quickly
  • To highlight islands of expertise
  • To provide an inventory and evaluation of intellectual and intangible assets
  • To improve decision making and problem solving by providing applicable information
  • To provide insights into corporate knowledge

The map also serves as the continuing evolving organizational memory, capturing and integrating the key knowledge of an organization. It enables employees learning through intuitive navigation and interpretation of the information in the map, and through the creation of new knowledge through the discovery of new relationships. Simply speaking, K-map gives employees not only -know what-, but also -know how-.

Key principles of Knowledge Mapping

  • Because of their power, scope, and impact, the creation of organizational-level knowledge map requires senior management support as well as careful planning
  • Share your knowledge about identifying, finding, and tracking knowledge in all forms
  • Recognize and locate knowledge in a wide variety of forms: tacit, explicit, formal, informal, codified, personalized, internal, external, and permanent
  • Knowledge is found in processes, relationships, policies, people, documents, conversations, links and context, and even with partners
  • It should be up-to-date and accurate

K-mapping – key questions

Knowledge map provides an assessment of existing and required knowledge and information in the following categories:

  • What knowledge is needed for work?
  • Who needs what?
  • Who has it?
  • Where does it benefit?
  • Is the knowledge tacit or explicit?
  • What issues does it address?
  • How to make sure that the K-mapping will be used in an organization?


  • K-maps should be easily accessible to all in the organization
  • It should be easy to understand, update and evolve
  • It should be regularly updated
  • It should be an ongoing process since knowledge landscapes are continuously shifting and evolving

Offline Readings:

  • K-mapping tools
  • K-mapping tool selection
  • Creating knowledge maps by exploiting dependent relationships
  • Creating knowledge structure map?
  • White pages
  • KM jargon and glossary

Online Resource: http: // KnowledgeMapping

K-mapping Tools:

  • MindMapping
  • Inspiration
  • IHMC ( (need to have.NET Framework and JavaRunTime installed in your computer)

(Learn more about KM tool selection at )

Categorised K-mapping

Social Network Mapping:

This shows networks of knowledge and patterns of interaction among members, groups, organizations, and other social entities who knows who, who goes to what for help and advice, where the information enters and leaves the groups or organization, which forums and communities of practice Are operational and generating new knowledge.

Competency Mapping:

With this kind of mapping, one can create a competency profile with skill, positions, and even career path of an individual. And, this can also be converted into the? Organizational yellow pages? Which enables employees to find needed expertise in people within the organization.

Process-based Knowledge Mapping:

This shows knowledge and sources of knowledge for internal as well as external organizational processes and procedures. This includes tacit knowledge (knowledge in people such as know-how, and experience) and explicit knowledge (codified knowledge such as that in document).

Conceptual Knowledge Mapping:

Also sometimes called -taxonomy-, it is a method of hierarchically organizing and classifying content. This involves in labeling pieces of knowledge and relationships between them. A concept can be defined as any unit of thought, any idea that forms in our mind [Gertner, 1978]. Often, nouns are used to refer to concepts [Roche, 2002]. Relations form a special class of concepts [Sowa, 1984]: they describe connections between other concepts. One of the most important relationships between concepts is the hierarchical relation (subsumption), in which one concept (superconcept) is more general than another concept (subconcept) like Natural Resource Management and Watershed Management. This mapping should be able to relate similar kind of projects and workshops conducting / connected by two different departments, making them more integrated.

Knowledge is power, broadly accessible, understandable, and shared knowledge is even more powerful!

How to Protect Yourself From Laptop Theft

For most people owning a laptop is all about convenience. Being able to sit where your want to work, wander around from office to office, sit in front of the television or even brows the web in bed are the reasons why laptops have become so popular.

It has also become much more than a work tool. For many people it is the place where you keep all the things that are important to you: your email and financial information, business secrets, personal writings, even irreplaceable media like photos, film, and writings.

So if your laptop were stolen from you tomorrow, what would it do to your life?

Even worse, if a laptop belonging to your business were stolen that contained the personal data of customers or clients, it could put all of them at risk of identity theft and you could be held liable.

This crime draws both the common thief and the more sophisticated identity thief alike, and it's on the rise in England. Last year, a laptop belonging to the Nationwide and containing the personal information of over 11 million customers was stolen and never recovered. In London, laptop theft is up 15% on last year, with over 6500 laptops stolen in 2006 (not including laptops stolen out of homes and offices). Other metropolitan areas in Britain have similar statistics: over 2000 in Edinburgh with a 31% increase, and a 15% increase in Manchester.

Having a laptop stolen is personal nightmare if it is your own machine, but so much worse if you lose information that compromises your friends, co-workers, and clients. At Marks & Spencer's, a laptop lost in 2007 contained sensitive data about 26,000 employees, including their national insurance numbers and other personal identifying information. That cost Marks & Spencer's free credit checks for all employees and a promise to cover them for any damages if their identities were compromised. In the Nationwide case above, the company was fined just under a million pounds.

And even if you get the laptop back, even if the laptop was only "borrowed" its data can be copied off in minutes, putting any data on it at risk even after the machine is returned.

Two simple steps protect yourself against losing your personal computer?

The First Step: Protect Yourself

Laptops are at risk due to the very portability that makes them useful. It takes only seconds for someone to carry off your unguarded laptop, along with all its precious contents. The first thing to do is not leave it unprotected, even for a minute; Keep it in sight. Get good security on your wireless connections while you're at it, and carefully choose the places where you use that connection.

You can also get physical barriers against using a stolen laptop. For instance, biometrics including fingerprint scanners has become increasingly popular with laptops, and key cards that you keep in your wallet or luggage separate from the laptop can be used to secure it. Computers with hard drives mated to internal workings prevent your hard drive from being removed and copied. And if your laptop is used to access the Internet after it is stolen, there are subscription services that can trace it remotely and render it unusable while it connects to the web.

The Second Step: Consider Laptop Insurance

Laptop insurance is becoming one of the fastest growing specialist insurances. With low-cost monthly premiums, having some form of insurance policy could be the one thing between you and financial ruin. Laptop insurance is cheap, and if you have used other protections for your laptop, it gets even cheaper. Many providers offer worldwide cover, accidental damage protection and a 48 hour replacement service.

Protect yourself physically with laptop security and financially with good laptop insurance. With luck, you'll never have to depend on either. But if the worst comes about, you'll be glad you did.

Important Things To Consider When Choosing A Hotel

Choosing a hotel to stay in is one of the most important decisions to make when planning a trip. This can be difficult, especially when embarking on a journey to an unfamiliar destination. A perfect choice can help make the trip a more exciting experience while a poor choice could ruin the trip altogether. Below we will discuss five major factors to consider before booking a hotel.


Choosing a hotel that suits your travel budget is a key factor to consider. This would help you save some cost if well thought out. Hotel prices are affected by location, hotel type (luxury or budget hotel) and also by the facilities. With the right research you can get a good bargain in a top hotel (especially when they offer discounts).


So many questions would come to mind when considering the hotel’s location. Is it close to the venue of your primary reason for travelling? Is it in a secure location? What is transportation in the area like? What are the tourist attractions around the area? Are there any medical centres around? All these questions and more need to be properly answered to make sure you are close to everything you would need throughout your stay.


This is one very important factor to consider because it helps you understand what facilities are available at the hotel compared what the ones you need. Therefore helps you avoid unpleasant surprises. For instance, it would be discouraging to find out that the hotel does not have Wi-Fi and internet connection, especially for those on a business trip. How about finding out that you might need to share the bathroom or some other conveniences.


Getting true value for money spent can only be done by comparing prices of the different hotels simultaneously. You can ask for discounts and other lucrative offers ad save some money. Apart from considering the price of the hotel, you can also research about value added services like laundry/dry cleaning, internet access, extended room services, etc.


Reading through the experiences of others who have stayed at any of the hotels you are considering would help to authenticate the quality and standard of the hotel. Though you can’t solely rely on this factor, most times these reviews are honest and vital resources needed when deciding between hotels. These reviews help you answer questions like are the hotel rooms clean, are the air conditioners working, how friendly is the customer service and whether the food at the restaurant is any good.

If you put these five factors into consideration before booking a hotel for your next trip, am sure you would not be disappointed with your choice.

The Hotwife Lifestyle – 3 Secrets to Make It Work!

For many couples the Hotwife lifestyle is a marriage saver – something you might find counterintuitive considering the pain, anguish and trouble infidelity typically causes in a marriage. But the …

Hotwife Lifestyle

Is NOT the same as ordinary infidelity.

Let me explain – when someone has an 'affair', it usually means they're doing it behind the other's back. And that means there's something very wrong between them for that to happen.

But a woman being a hotwife is different – because it's done not only with her husband's consent and full knowledge … but usually she's doing it with his approval and urgent!

Now, to many men and women, that's going to make them throw their arms up in horror. And that's OK – because no one is suggesting anyone does anything they do not want to do.

But the fact is, having a hotwife is many a man's hottest fantasy – and his real problem is often stated that: " how can I get my wife to sleep with other men without her thinking I'm strange, kinky, or plain not In love with her any more? ".

And it's a good question because the kneejerk reaction from many women is a feeling of loss and almost abandonment; Indeed, many of them think the man is asking her to do it so he can then take another partner – but the truth is most men do not want this at all. What they want is their wives to include them in the hotwiving, to the extent they might want to watch, listen, hear all about it or even join in.

Yet, it's still not without its potential problems, especially in the early days. So, with that in mind, drawing on my own experience as a husband to my own hotwife these past 7 years, here are three tips to help make things go more smoothly:

  1. Always put your partner at the # 1 position . By this I mean it's vital you see a clear distinction between a sexual partner and a relationship . If there is ever any pressure from her lover to exclude the man in any way, then the ground-rules must clearly and unambiguously see the marriage as the most important thing. In other words, the lover has to go!
  2. Do not expect the "same stuff" . As a man, there's no mileage in worrying about what she might be doing for or with him that she does not do for or with you. It's not a competition and everyone's got different likes and dislikes, and every couple's sexual dynamic is also different. The thing to focus on is are you getting what you need, and forget what the other guy is getting.
  3. Either of you must be able to say 'stop' . Things change, and so do people. So it's important that either one of you has the power of veto, both over an individual man as a potential lover, a situation or event, or even the whole hotwife lifestyle. It's a recipe for disaster to have a situation when the man feels uncomfortable about the guy she's taken as a lover, and she, in effect, tells him that's "hard luck".

If you can follow these three simple guidelines, then the hotwife lifestyle might be right for you. But, be careful about your sources of information. It IS a potential minefield, and it pays to tread carefully. My wife, Josselyn, and I have been in the lifestyle for the past 7 years and apart from a few hiccoughs it's been a lot of fun.